If you want the formula for calculating the distance from up a tree vs. on the ground, you can't do any better than the pythagorean theorem: a^2 * b^2 = c^2. Let's assume you see a deer standing next to a tree that you know to be 20 yards out. Your stand height is 20 feet.
a^2=20^2 = 20 X20 = 400 feet
b^2 = (20*3)^2 = 60 X 60= 3600 feet
c= the square root of ( 400+3600)= 63.25 feet or 21 yards.
What Pythagorus is telling you here is that at 20 feet up, the difference between the ground and the treestand ain't all that much.
The big problem is going to be the fact that by being elevated, and shooting down, you are somewhat negating the effect that gravity will have on the arrow. The formula to calculate that is much more complicated, but a high-school physics textbook would teach you how.
The rule of thumb used to be: Beyond 20 yards, subtract one pin. That is, if the deer presents himself at 30 yards, shoot with the 20 yard pin. I bought my last bow in 1996, so forgive me if that rule does not fit your new bow.
That should not be something you take for granted anyway. To find out where your bow really shoots, you need to go up the tree and actually fire at your target from straight down all the way out to your farthest shot and actually get a feel for it. The faster your bow shoots, the less you will have to compensate for distance and elevation.
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