Howdy and welcome.
The fact of the matter is that just about any centerfire rifle is going to kill a deer, given the right circumstances. The first trick is going to be defining how you will be hunting the deer and then finding a rifle that fits you and your style of hunting.
Check this out:http://genesis9.angzva.com/?p=404
. . . and then start poking around. You will find a lot of what you need on my weblog.
Also check out the threads in the Guns and Ammo section of this forum. A lot of folks have been asking the same questions.
My general advice is this:
1) See if you can borrow a 30-06 or 308 and give it a try. They mark the boundary of average acceptable recoil. If you're using a shotgun you're probably not recoil shy.
2) Do not worry about taking deer beyond 200 yards anytime soon. Most deer are taken within 85 yards.
3) Stay away from anything with a "Magnum" in the name. It is not necessary for taking deer
4) As far as action is concerned, any action (bolt, pump, lever, etc.) is going to work. It all depends on your preference, and that is something you will have to develop over time.
5) Scopes are not necessary, but they are handy. All my deer rifles have scopes, because I'm an old fart and my eyes went bad about a decade ago.
6) . . .
. . . oops. Gotta run. I'll try and add something later.