Most people who are bowhunting these days are using carbon-fiber arrow shafts. When I started most people used aluminum, but you really only get 1 shot with an aluminum arrow at anything other than a target... When hunting, the aluminum shaft will most likely end up bent after the shot. Some people who prefer the more traditional approach in their equipment are still using wood shafts, which are obviously more likely to flat out break when shot into an animal.
As far as weight/length/diameter, that all really depends on the weapon. Being fired from a vertical bow compared to a crossbow, the shafts are radically different. Even the different vertical bow construction with varying draw length (based on the individual person shooting the bow) and draw weight (which results in how much energy the bow is putting into the arrow) will dictate a wide range of measurements.
When you start talking about brand there are other factors to consider (also largely based on the individual)... ie: cost (usually the first thing I look at), personal experiences, brand loyalty, advertising success...
This is my take on your questions with regard to hunting whitetail deer (with the full expectation that I may shoot a rabbit/squirrel/coyote etc.. as the opportunity presents itself while in the woods)
"When a hunter is in a tree stand with high moral values and with the proper hunting ethics and richer for the experience, that hunter is 20 feet closer to God." ~Fred Bear