no, it was all made up, kinda like we did not go to the moon type nonsense, it was all made up over at the Johnson Space Craft Center, and also, kinda like the question, does a bear sh.t in the woods type thing
here's what they do know...more on potential for human CWD later, i'm still working on that research to date prion2013...http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/18/3/1 ... rticle.htmhttp://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0004019
pens, pens, PENS ???
*** Spraker suggested an interesting explanation for the occurrence of CWD. The deer pens at the Foot Hills Campus were built some 30-40 years ago by a Dr. Bob Davis. At or abut that time, allegedly, some scrapie work was conducted at this site. When deer were introduced to the pens they occupied ground that had previously been occupied by sheep. http://collections.europarchive.org/tna ... /tab01.pdf
now, decades later ;
PO-039: A comparison of scrapie and chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer
Justin Greenlee, Jodi Smith, Eric Nicholson US Dept. Agriculture; Agricultural Research Service, National Animal Disease Center; Ames, IA USA
The results of this study suggest that there are many similarities in the manifestation of CWD and scrapie in WTD after IC inoculation including early and widespread presence of PrPSc in lymphoid tissues, clinical signs of depression and weight loss progressing to wasting, and an incubation time of 21-23 months. Moreover, western blots (WB) done on brain material from the obex region have a molecular profile similar to CWD and distinct from tissues of the cerebrum or the scrapie inoculum. However, results of microscopic and IHC examination indicate that there are differences between the lesions expected in CWD and those that occur in deer with scrapie: amyloid plaques were not noted in any sections of brain examined from these deer and the pattern of immunoreactivity by IHC was diffuse rather than plaque-like. After a natural route of exposure, 100% of WTD were susceptible to scrapie. Deer developed clinical signs of wasting and mental depression and were necropsied from 28 to 33 months PI. Tissues from these deer were positive for PrPSc by IHC and WB. Similar to IC inoculated deer, samples from these deer exhibited two different molecular profiles: samples from obex resembled CWD whereas those from cerebrum were similar to the original scrapie inoculum. On further examination by WB using a panel of antibodies, the tissues from deer with scrapie exhibit properties differing from tissues either from sheep with scrapie or WTD with CWD. Samples from WTD with CWD or sheep with scrapie are strongly immunoreactive when probed with mAb P4, however, samples from WTD with scrapie are only weakly immunoreactive. In contrast, when probed with mAb’s 6H4 or SAF 84, samples from sheep with scrapie and WTD with CWD are weakly immunoreactive and samples from WTD with scrapie are strongly positive. This work demonstrates that WTD are highly susceptible to sheep scrapie, but on first passage, scrapie in WTD is differentiable from CWD. http://www.landesbioscience.com/journal ... trains.pdf
*** After a natural route of exposure, 100% of white-tailed deer were susceptible to scrapie. http://www.usaha.org/Portals/6/Reports/ ... l-2011.pdf
Scrapie in Deer: Comparisons and Contrasts to Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD)
Justin J. Greenlee of the Virus and Prion Diseases Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, ARS, USDA, Ames, IA
This highlights the facts that 1) prior to the onset of clinical signs PrPSc is widely distributed in the CNS and lymphoid tissues and 2) currently used diagnostic methods are sufficient to detect PrPSc prior to the onset of clinical signs. The results of this study suggest that there are many similarities in the manifestation of CWD and scrapie in white-tailed deer after IC inoculation including early and widespread presence of PrPSc in lymphoid tissues, clinical signs of depression and weight loss progressing to wasting, and an incubation time of 21-23 months. Moreover, western blots (WB) done on brain material from the obex region have a molecular profile consistent with CWD and distinct from tissues of the cerebrum or the scrapie inoculum. However, results of microscopic and IHC examination indicate that there are differences between the lesions expected in CWD and those that occur in deer with scrapie: amyloid plaques were not noted in any sections of brain examined from these deer and the pattern of immunoreactivity by IHC was diffuse rather than plaque-like. After a natural route of exposure, 100% of white-tailed deer were susceptible to scrapie. Deer developed clinical signs of wasting and mental depression and were necropsied from 28 to 33 months PI. Tissues from these deer were positive for scrapie by IHC and WB. Tissues with PrPSc immunoreactivity included brain, tonsil, retropharyngeal and mesenteric lymph nodes, hemal node, Peyer’s patches, and spleen. While two WB patterns have been detected in brain regions of deer inoculated by the natural route, unlike the IC inoculated deer, the pattern similar to the scrapie inoculum predominates. http://www.usaha.org/Portals/6/Reports/ ... l-2011.pdf
2011 Annual Report
Research Project: TRANSMISSION, DIFFERENTIATION, AND PATHOBIOLOGY OF TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHIES Location: Virus and Prion Research Unit
2011 Annual Report
In Objective 1, Assess cross-species transmissibility of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) in livestock and wildlife, numerous experiments assessing the susceptibility of various TSEs in different host species were conducted. Most notable is deer inoculated with scrapie, which exhibits similarities to chronic wasting disease (CWD) in deer suggestive of sheep scrapie as an origin of CWD.
4.Accomplishments 1. Deer inoculated with domestic isolates of sheep scrapie. Scrapie-affected deer exhibit 2 different patterns of disease associated prion protein. In some regions of the brain the pattern is much like that observed for scrapie, while in others it is more like chronic wasting disease (CWD), the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy typically associated with deer. This work conducted by ARS scientists at the National Animal Disease Center, Ames, IA suggests that an interspecies transmission of sheep scrapie to deer may have been the origin of CWD. This is important for husbandry practices with both captive deer, elk and sheep for farmers and ranchers attempting to keep their herds and flocks free of CWD and scrapie. http://ars.usda.gov/research/projects/p ... ue&fy=2011
White-tailed Deer are Susceptible to Scrapie by Natural Route of Infection
Jodi D. Smith, Justin J. Greenlee, and Robert A. Kunkle; Virus and Prion Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, USDA-ARS
This work demonstrates for the first time that white-tailed deer are susceptible to sheep scrapie by potential natural routes of inoculation. In-depth analysis of tissues will be done to determine similarities between scrapie in deer after intracranial and oral/intranasal inoculation and chronic wasting disease resulting from similar routes of inoculation.
see full text ; http://www.usaha.org/Portals/6/Reports/ ... l-2010.pdf
SEE MORE USAHA REPORTS HERE, 2012 NOT PUBLISHED YET...TSS http://www.usaha.org/Portals/6/Proceedi ... -114th.pdf http://www.usaha.org/Portals/6/Proceedi ... edings.pdf http://portals5.gomembers.com/portals/6 ... edings.pdf
Thursday, June 20, 2013
atypical, BSE, CWD, Scrapie, Captive Farmed shooting pens (livestock), Wild Cervids, Rectal Mucosa Biopsy 2012 USAHA Proceedings, and CJD TSE prion Update http://transmissiblespongiformencephalo ... armed.html
*** The potential impact of prion diseases on human health was greatly magnified by the recognition that interspecies transfer of BSE to humans by beef ingestion resulted in vCJD. While changes in animal feed constituents and slaughter practices appear to have curtailed vCJD, there is concern that CWD of free-ranging deer and elk in the U.S. might also cross the species barrier. Thus, consuming venison could be a source of human prion disease. Whether BSE and CWD represent interspecies scrapie transfer or are newly arisen prion diseases is unknown. Therefore, the possibility of transmission of prion disease through other food animals cannot be ruled out. There is evidence that vCJD can be transmitted through blood transfusion. There is likely a pool of unknown size of asymptomatic individuals infected with vCJD, and there may be asymptomatic individuals infected with the CWD equivalent. These circumstances represent a potential threat to blood, blood products, and plasma supplies. http://cdmrp.army.mil/prevfunded/nprp/N ... Report.pdf
Thursday, August 08, 2013
Characterization of the first case of naturally occurring chronic wasting disease in a captive red deer (Cervus elaphus) in North America http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot ... se-of.html
Friday, August 09, 2013
CWD TSE prion, plants, vegetables, and the potential for environmental contamination http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot ... s-and.html
Friday, February 08, 2013
*** Behavior of Prions in the Environment: Implications for Prion Biology http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot ... nment.html
Friday, December 14, 2012
DEFRA U.K. What is the risk of Chronic Wasting Disease CWD being introduced into Great Britain? A Qualitative Risk Assessment October 2012
Therefore, it is considered that farmed and park deer may have a higher probability of exposure to CWD transferred to the environment than wild deer given the restricted habitat range and higher frequency of contact with tourists and returning GB residents.
In the USA, under the Food and Drug Administration’s BSE Feed Regulation (21 CFR 589.2000) most material (exceptions include milk, tallow, and gelatin) from deer and elk is prohibited for use in feed for ruminant animals. With regards to feed for non-ruminant animals, under FDA law, CWD positive deer may not be used for any animal feed or feed ingredients. For elk and deer considered at high risk for CWD, the FDA recommends that these animals do not enter the animal feed system. However, this recommendation is guidance and not a requirement by law.
Animals considered at high risk for CWD include:
1) animals from areas declared to be endemic for CWD and/or to be CWD eradication zones and
2) deer and elk that at some time during the 60-month period prior to slaughter were in a captive herd that contained a CWD-positive animal.
Therefore, in the USA, materials from cervids other than CWD positive animals may be used in animal feed and feed ingredients for non-ruminants.
The amount of animal PAP that is of deer and/or elk origin imported from the USA to GB can not be determined, however, as it is not specified in TRACES. It may constitute a small percentage of the 8412 kilos of non-fish origin processed animal proteins that were imported from US into GB in 2011.
Overall, therefore, it is considered there is a __greater than negligible risk___ that (nonruminant) animal feed and pet food containing deer and/or elk protein is imported into GB.
There is uncertainty associated with this estimate given the lack of data on the amount of deer and/or elk protein possibly being imported in these products.
snip... http://www.defra.gov.uk/animal-diseases ... 121029.pdf
Friday, December 14, 2012
DEFRA U.K. What is the risk of Chronic Wasting Disease CWD being introduced into Great Britain? A Qualitative Risk Assessment October 2012 http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot ... ronic.html
Saturday, February 04, 2012
Wisconsin 16 MONTH age limit on testing dead deer Game Farm CWD Testing Protocol Needs To Be Revised http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot ... -dead.html
Monday, June 24, 2013
The Effects of Chronic Wasting Disease on the Pennsylvania Cervid Industry Following its Discovery http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot ... sease.html
Thursday, July 11, 2013
The New Hornographers: The Fight Over the Future of Texas Deer, Captive shooting pens, and the CWD TSE prion disease http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot ... uture.html
Tuesday, July 02, 2013
National Rifle Association and the Unified Sportsman of Florida support a Florida ban on the importation of captive deer and cervids into Florida http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot ... ified.html
Sunday, June 09, 2013
Missouri House forms 13-member Interim Committee on the Cause and Spread of Chronic Wasting Disease CWD http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot ... terim.html
Tuesday, April 16, 2013
Cervid Industry Unites To Set Direction for CWD Reform and seem to ignore their ignorance and denial in their role in spreading Chronic Wasting Disease http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot ... ction.html
Tuesday, February 28, 2012
newly developed injectable CWD vaccine, live rectal mucosa testing and Deer Game Farms Update http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot ... ccine.html
AD.24: Development of an oral vaccine for chronic wasting disease
Ryan Taschuk1,3 Kristen Marciniuk,1,2 Suresh Tikoo,1,3 Philip Griebel,1 Andrew Potter,1 Neil Cashman5 and Scott Napper1,2
1University of Saskatchewan; VIDO-lnterVac; Saskatoon, SK Canada; 2Department of Biochemistry; University of Saskatchewan; Saskatoon, SK Canada; 3School of Public Health; University of Saskatchewan; Saskatoon, SK Canada; 4Brain Research Centre; University of British Columbia; Vancouver, BC Canada; 5Brain Research Center; University of British Columbia; Vancouver, BC Canada
The prion protein is well conserved across mammals, and the misfolded protein is the causative agent in many animal-specific prion diseases, including chronic wasting disease (CWD) in deer and elk. Prion diseases are caused by misfolding of endogenously expressed prion protein from the native and homeostatic Prpc conformation to the infectious and pathogenic PrPsc conformation. Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are of great interest for many reasons: the onset of disease inevitably leads to neurodegeneration and death, the potential of interference with food production through transmission both within and between agricultural species can have severe economic impacts, and the potential exists for zoonotic transmission. Our group has hypothesized that immunotherapeutic targeting of the PrPSc conformation would clear the infectious agent / infected cell while sparing native PrP, and vaccines may have potential application in prevention of CWD transmission or therapeutic treatment of disease.
Our research has focused upon identifying and optimizing three components of a potential CWD vaccine: a CWD-disease specific epitope (DSE) that induces antibody responses, a carrier protein to increase the magnitude and duration of antibody responses toward DSEs, and identification of delivery systems for oral delivery of the above DSE-carrier protein ro cervids. We have developed and optimized DSEs from three distinct regions of PrPc. Vaccination trials using iterations of these DSEs elicit high titers of epitope-specific serum antibody. A second generation carrier protein has increased both the duration and magnitude of antibody responses when compared with our previous carrier protein. Lastly, two delivery systems were effective in inducing antibody responses when administered orally to white-tailed deer. We have identified the vaccine components necessary for delivering a CWD vaccine to wild cervids. These findings will direct our final CWD vaccine formulation and delivery system. http://www.prion2013.ca/tiny_uploads/fo ... rogram.pdf www.landesbioscience.com
Sunday, August 11, 2013
Development of an oral vaccine for chronic wasting disease http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot ... ronic.html
Sunday, July 21, 2013
*** As Chronic Wasting Disease CWD rises in deer herd, what about risk for humans? http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot ... es-in.html
Wednesday, August 21, 2013
IOWA DNR EMERGENCY CONSENT ORDER IN THE MATTER OF TOM & LINDA BRAKKE D/B/A PINE RIDGE HUNTING LODGE UPDATE AUGUST 21, 2013 http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot ... er-in.html