I started way back with a Remington 1100 12 GA shooting Sluggers in Ohio and a Remington 742 in 30-06 shooting 180 grain RN loads. That was a quarter-century ago. My current deer battery:
Remington 7600 in 35 Whelen-- The 742 died a few years ago, and I replaced it with a pump. I load "The Whelenizer" with 200 Grain Remington SPCL. It has a 1.50-4.5X Bushnell Banner scope. I wish I could say it's the ultimate deer gun, but I do not see it performing any better than a 30-06.
Winchester M70 in 30-06 with a 4-12X Bushnell scope. If I actually had a beanfield to shoot over, this would be the rifle. My longest shot with it to date has been 165 yards. It shoots 165 Hornady Interlock SP.
Marlin 336 in 30-30. I have been somewhat underwhelmed by 30-30, but it has suited my young sons for a Yute rifle. I load it with Winchester 150 grain Powerpoints. It has produced several deer, but it has also lost a couple. #3 son will be hunting his first rifle season this year and I'm trying the Winchester bullets, having had spotty luck with 150 and 170 grain Hornady FP.
M1 Garand. My #2 son finished out his yute career with several deer using this rifle. It shoots 165 Hornady Interlock SP, the same load I use in the M70. It is heavy for a deer gun, but that and the gas-operated action helps the recoil. When you have a yute that goes 6'4" and 200lbs, this is a perfect yute rifle. I found #2, his own M70 in 30-06 for Christmas last year. He'll start hunting on his own this fall with that.
. . . and now the envelope please. My #1 deer rifle is a Savage 99 in 308 Win. I had wanted to shoot downloaded 150 grain loads and make it a hot 300 Savage-ish gun, but I could not find a 150 grain bullet that grouped well. I tried the 165 grain Hornady Interlock SP (see a pattern?) and it shot perfectly at a load that produced 2600 fps. I've shot 3 nice bucks with it since 2003, including my two biggest to date. If I didn't end up filling the freezer with these guys, I would be shooting more.
The Rem 1100 in 12 GA is still around, and I still like to get it out at least one day every season and do some stalking in the cedar thickets. It still shoots 12 GA Sluggers into a pie plate offhand at 50 yards. When it connects on a deer, it is still awesome.
For Smokepole season, I have a .54 caliber TC Hawken that has been with me for 24 years. #2 son shoots a Mossberg 500 with a ML barrel.
We have a bunch more, but that's the ones that regularly get brought out. Over time, I have whittled down my powder selections to just one, H4895. The years of developing youth loads and the M1 Garand convinced me that it was an ideal powder for shooting consistent groups at less-than-max velocities.